Easy Latin Stories/Notes

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Fairytale left blue.png XXII Vocabulary Fairytale right blue.png

NOTES. PART L SIMPLE SBNTENCKS, EvEBT Simple Sentence is either : — L A Statement ; as Psittacos loquitur, The parrot speaks, IL A Command or Beqnesfc ; as Loqnere, psittace. Speak, parroL ILL A Qnestion; as Loqnitome psittacns? Doea the parrot speak f 1. apud — 'attheoonrtol' Corinth — a town on the isthmus which separates Northern Greece from the Peloponnesns (island of Pdops). — Lot. Prim, § 101. ingentibus opibus comparatis.— Xat Prim, § 125. Tarentum — ^now Taranto, the largest Greek city in Italy, on the golf of the same name. — Lot, Prim, § 121, o. 2. oUata — ^fromofiPera 3. redactus — ^fromredigo. mediam navem — 'the middle of the ship ;' so with other adjectiYes of position, as, snmmus mons — 'the top of the mountain.' -.4. Taenamm — ^now Gape Matapan, the most southern promontory of Greece, delatus — from defero. 5. midtam pecuniae — Ut. 'much of money.' — LaL Prim, § 131. 6L Massagetae — a wandering tribe in Central Asia. Scythae— a people of S. -E. Europe, stmili Scythamm — short for 'like those of the S.' V tor.— Lot. Prim, § 119, a. Ex equia — 'on horseback.' ad omnia — '/or eyerything.' cocta — ^from ooquo. 7. qiiisque . • • sepeliimt — 'They bnry . . . each fai his own.' 8. tmgulis bovinis — 'with the hoofs of an ox.' — Lot, Prim, § 115. magnitudine. — LaJt, Prim, § 116. 9. The phoenix was said to live five hundred years, and then to kill itself by fire, its ashes producing a young one. ex intervallo — 'after an interval' aliprum . . . aliorum — of some . . . of others. — See 91. note, drcumlitum — ^from circumlino. 10. magni — 'at a. high price.' — L(xt, Prim, § 128, a. I04 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part i. 11. mnres bipedes — ^probably the jerboa, which makes rery little ose of its forelegs, which are very smalL smgulis cornibiis — 'with one horn apiece.' denique — 'in a word.' 12. in sicco — 'on dry land.' ex minimo fit maxininni — ' from being very smaU becomes veiy large.' ovis,—LaL Prim, § 124. 13. aliis — 'to,'ie. ' are considered sacred 6y.' Thebae — ^the capital of Upper Egypt. Moeris, idis — a lake in Middle Egypt. 14. amicti — ^from amicio. 15. varii colons. — Lot. Prim, § 128. 16. Lydia — a country in the south-west of Asia Minor. domi — ' at home.' An old case called the locative. 17. Sardes, ium— the capital of Lydia. la Adra^o— the dative.— Za<. Prim. § 109. 19. Mt. Olympns, in Mysia, a country in Asia Minor, exstitit — ^f rom exsisto. 21. ne feceritis — 'do not make.' If there were no ne, the verb would be in the Imperative. Always use the Perfect Subjunctive in com- mands with a negative, if it be the second person, vobiscum. — Cum is written after me, te, se, nobis, vobis, quo, qua, quibus. 22. tandem — after interrogatives gives sense of impatience, as 'who, I pray,' * who on earth.' 23. mi — ^vocative of mens. Filius, genius, and proper names in ius make vocative in i, 24. quaeve. — ve, que, nd, are always written after the word to which they are joined. 25. venatum— the supine in urn. — Lai, Prim, § 141, 5. 26. sis — 'be.' The present conj. is often used instead of the imperative, custode me — 'under my guardianship.' — Lot, Prim, § 125, a. 28. ignosco tibi.— Za<, Prim. § 106, 3. duos axmos,^^Lat. Prim, § 102, 1. 29. pro esca — 'as a bait' porcellum. — Diminutives end in tdu8, oluSf effttf, cutua, with fern, and neut. forms ending in a and um. 30. Sestos — ^a town in Thrace, situated at the narrowest part of the Hellespont. Xerxes — king of Persia, who made an expedition against the Qreeks, B.C. 480. Elaeus, untis — a town in Thrace. In Latin, verbs of taking away often have tiie person from whom the thing is taken in the dative. PART I. J NOTES. 105 Protesilans was worshipped as a hero ; he was the first Greek slain at the siege of Troy. Sestum.— i/o^. Prhn, § 101. 31. ex improviso — 'unexpectedly.' 32. ne veritus sis. — See 21, note. 33. ne hoc quidem — 'not even by this.' The emphatic word is always put between ne and quidem. ' 34. Spartae — ^the locatiye case. See 16, note. 36. Oedipum Coloneum — the 'Oedipus At Oolonus/ one of the most celebrated of Sophocles' plays. 36. Ljsander — one of the greatest Spartan generals, conquered Athens, B.a 404. Lacedaemone— the locative, 'at Lacedemon' (Sparta). 37. ne posneritis. — See 21, note. 38. Inferi — ' the gods below,' where the dead were supposed to be. 39. Cyrus minor — 'the younger Gyrus ' (to distinguish him from Cyrus, the founder of the Persian empire) revolted ttom. his brother, Artazerxes, who had succeeded to the throne, and was killed at the battle of Gunaxa, near Babylon, B.a 401. ordines — 'rows.* 40. magnoanimo. — Lot. Prim, § 115. The supreme power at Athens, after its capture by Lysander, b.c. 404, was placed in the hands of a body of thirty citizens, who got the name of the Thirty Tyrants. in vas emisit — an allusion to the game of cottabus ; in which the last drops of wine were jerked into a bowl, the object being to make a dear ringing sound. The player at the same time uttered the name of any one he loved. Here tiie point is that he says, ' This to the beautiful Oritias,' as though he loved him, when in reality he was his bitter enemy. 41. alium quendam — understand locum. Optimo quoque dve — 'all the best dtizeiis,' Hi, 'each best citizen.' 42. The battle of Thermopylae, in Thessaly, was fought by Leonidas at the head of 300 Spartans and a few allies, against the hosts of Xerxes, king of Persia, B.a 480. All the Qreeks were slain, pre- ferring death to dishonour. Lacaena — 'a Laconian woman' — ^Laconia, a country in the Pelopon- nesus, of which Sparta was the capitaL In hunc finem — 'to this end.' 43. Cyrenaeum — an inhabitant of (Jyrene, a town in N. Africa. 44. Carthago — Carthage, the rival of Rome, a city in N. Africa, founded by the Phoenicians. Sunt taSbL—Lctt. Prim, § 107, 0. ntnim . . • an . . . 'whether--or. io6 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part i. 46. Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia (now part ol Turkey), and conqueror of Asia, died b.g. 323. tantum pecuniae.— Xa<. Prim, § 131. 47. Lydia.— See 16, note. Summa vi— 'with all his might.' 4& docere.— Za& PrinL § 98. minoris.— i/ot Prim. § 128, a. 49. snmmam aquam. — See 3, note. 60. domum. — Lai, Prim, § 101. 51. Hercules — (Herakles), one of the national heroes of Greece. Hydra — a fabulous monster with many heads, slain by Hercules Lemnos — an iriand in the Aegean Sea. The siege of Troy was undertaken by the Greeks to recover Helen, wife of Meuelaus, king of Sparta, who had been carried off by Paris, son of Pliam, king of Troy. 52. iure nigro— 'black broth,' a standing dish at a Spartan dinner. — Lai, Prim, § 119. 53. Themistodes — a celebrated Athenian, to whose efforts the victory of Salamis (b.c. 480) over the Persians may be ascribed. Aristides — known as 'the Just,' a distinguished Athenian. in hunc modnm—' as follows.' qnum • • • turn — 'both . . . and.' ne auditnm quidem.— See 33, note. 54. artificii huius modi — ' a trick of this kind. ' 55. Hercules — (Herakles), the son of Zeus and Alcmena^ was ordered by Apollo to serve Eurystheus, king of Tiryns, for twelve years, as a penance for the murder of his children, whom he had shun in a fit of madness. At the bidding of Eurystheus he per- formed twelve wonderful deeds, and was then set free. After his death he was worshipped as a hero. He represents the struggle between good and evil, and the victory of civilisation over barbarism. Nemea — a valley of Argolis in the Peloponnesus. Tisyns-Hi city of Argolis. humeris.— ^a<. Prim. § 106, a. 57. Eiymantlius — a mountain in Arcadia, in the PeloponnesusL 59. Elis — a country in the west of the Peloponnesus. Uno die.— jDo^. Prim. % 120. 60. ad— 'near.' 61. mirae magnitudinis. — Lot. Prim. § 128. Poseidon — ^the god of the sea ; identified with the Neptunus of the Creta— (Candia) one of the largest islands in the Mediterranean, eius vice — 'in its stead.' 62. Bistones — a people of Thrace, now part of Turkey. PART I.] NOTES. 107 pugnatum est — ' it was fought,' — an impersoiial constniction ; that is to say, no subject is apparent. equabus. — Words of the first declension, that have masculine forms of the second declension, make dat. and abL plur. abus for the sake of distinction. * secum. — Cum is written after and joined to— me, te, se, nobis, vobis, quo, qua, quibus or quis. 63. Amazones — ^the Amazons, a raee of warlike females, said to have come from the Caucasus, and to have settled in Asia Minor, manus conseraenmt — 'joined battle.* 64 Eiythia— -(the red), so called because it lay under the rays of the setting sun. nomen Hercnleis colttmnis— 'the name of the pillarB of Hercules.' —Lai. Prim, § 109. Helios — ^the sun god. Helion, Greek aocusatiye. 65. Atlas— <»ie of the Titans who warred against Zeus, was changed into a mountain, and condemned to support the weight of the heavens. Mount Atlas was in N. Af rica^ tni vice. — See 61, note. 66. Tartaia— the regions below the earth, to which the souls of the dead were sent. Hermes — ^the messenger of the gods, identified with the Mercurius of the Latins. Athena— the patroness of Athens, identified with Minerva^ 67. Corinthnm.— See 1, note. caussam dixerat — ' had pleaded a cause.' criminis. — Lot, Prim, § 133. 68. singulis — ^used instead of unis, as unus is only used with words that have a plural only; or whose singular and plural differ in meaning. Ne turn quidem. — See 33, note. Ephori — ^the five chief magistrates at Sparta. Sacra facere — 'to offer a sacrifice.' 69. Ne edideris — See 21, note. Phrygia — a country in the north-west of Asia Minor. 70. alii • . . alii — See 91, note. 71. ad condiendum — * to the embalming.' — Lot. Prim, § 14i, 1. 72. hominis figura — 'in the shape of a man.' 73. quam maxima — 'with the very greatest;' quam strengthens the superlative. 75. Ceres — ^the goddess of the earth. aleam lusisse. — Lot, Prim, § 97. ferentem — ' leading.' 76. drcuitu absoluto — lU, ' the circuit having been completed ' — ' having gone the round.' io8 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part i. 77. Medi — ^the Medea, the inhabitants of a oountry in Asia, to the north of Persia^ Astyages— probably the Darius mentioned in the Book of DanieL necandnm — ^the gerundive, 'to be slain.' 78. Solon— 4ihe great Athenian lawgiver, was bom about 638 b c. tertio die.— See L<U, Prim, § 12a quum . . . turn. — See 53, note. 80. satis victus.— Xa«. Prim. § 131. sacris factis. — See 68, note. 81. ezpeditionem — ^this expedition is placed about 646 B.a ad urbem — 'near the city.' 82. ducenos pedes — ' two hundred feet each.' — Lai, Prim. § 102, 2. Labynetus— otherwise Nabonnedus, the last king of Babylon. He abdicated in favour of his son Belshazzar. Compare the account in Daniel. The date of the capture of Babylon is 538 B.a 83. Araxes — ^probably either the Oxus or the Jazartes in Central Asia^ cuiusque — ' of every, ' lit. * each. ' ad saltandum — *to the dancing.' 84. Massagetarum. — See 6, note, pugnatum est— See 62, note. tui victricem — *the conqueress of thee ;' tui from tu ; tuam would mean 'belonging to thee.' The death of Cyrus is fixed at 529 B.o. 85. Samii— the inhabitants of Samos, an island in the Aegean Sea. EphorL — See 68, note. frumento. — Lat Prim. % 119, b. 86. Scythas — See 6, note. Quid tandem— 'what, pray?' See 22, note. 88. Scipio Nasica — i.e. Sdpio with the long nose, a celebrated Roman statesman, amidssimo ntebatnr — < was most friendly with.' Ennius — a celebrated Eoman poet, bom 239 B.a 89. Alexander. — See 46, note. Quo tandem iure— 'by what right, pray?' See 22, note. 90. dociiisse.— i/o^. Prim. § 98. pluris— ji!^a«. Prim. § 128, a. ne mentiti sitis. — See 21, note, operam date— 'pay attention.' PART 11. COMPOUND SENTENCES. A Compound Sentence consists of a Principal Sentence with dependent clauses. PART il] notes. 109 Glaiises introduced by the Relative or one of its particles, wndt^ u&t, guo, e^c, are called adjectival, as they are related to the PrincipiJ Sentence like adjectives. For the agreement of the Relative, see LaL Prim, § 91. 91. qui occupavit acts as an adjective to Polycrates : ' Polycrates who, * etc. alter . . • alter — 'the one . • . the other,' of two; alii . . . alii, ' some . . . others,' of many, natu minore — 'the younger,' lit. 'less by birth.' Samos — an island in the A^ean Sea, which is now called the Archipelago. Ionia— the western seaboard of Asia Minor, colonised by Greeks of the Ionian race, agebat ferebatque— ' drove and carried ofiP,' i.e. ' pillaged.' amico.— J^a^. Prim. § 106, 3. Lesbos — ^an island in the Aegean Sea, ofiP the coast of Mysia. 92. curae — dat. ' (for) a cause of anxiety.' — LcU. Prim. § 108. auro vinctus — 'set in gold.' Distingaish between 'vinctus' and victus. domum.— JSo^. Prim, § 101. 94. monumenta sui — ' as a memorial of himself. ' Monnmenta sua would mean ' his memorials. ' Vulcanus — ^the god of fire, and the patron of workers in metals. Ez adverso — 'opposite to.' septentrio — ^more luma^y aeptentrionea — 'the seven ploughing oxen; the seven stars of the constellation called the Wain, or the Great Bear, near the North Pole, hence, 'the north.' a septentr. — Ut. ' from' the north, here ' <m,* ' in the direction qf,* 96. vim— 'a quantity.' aedificandas curavit — 'got built.' 96. illos speciem docuit — Lot, Prim, § 98. vita fung^ — ' to finish life,' i.e. ' to die.' 97. in dies — 'from day to day.' 98. haerens animo — 'in doubt,' Ut. ' hesitating in mind.' 99. asinis.— Xa«. Prim. § 106, a. multum vini. — See 5, note. 102. Xerxes— the Ahasuerus of Scripture. pro imis cuspidibus—' instead of points at the end,' lit. 'lowest points.' 103. victus. — See 6, note. 104. Pythl— See 23, note. in postenim — 'for the future.' 105. quibus vescuntur.— JScrf. Prim. § 119, a. his hominibus. —2^a<. Prim. § 106, a. Argipaeis.— 2>a<. Prim. § 109. no EASY LATIN STORIES. [part ii. 106. CafMtis poena— 'penalty of death,' Ut. 'of the head.' Spartaoi — ^the ruling race in Laoonia, a country of Southern Greece, dictu— the supine, used as an ablative of respect asdvit — ^from aacisco. PART III. ADVERBIAL CLAU8E& An Adverbial Clause modifies a Principal Sentence like an Adverb, and is introduced by Conjunctions. (For examples see Lot, Prim, Appendix xl) The Adverb shows Why^ When, or How; and so does an Adverbial Clause* The tense of the verb in the Adverbial Clause is determined by the tense of the Principal Verb. Primary tenses (Present* Future, and Perfect with ' have ) are followed by Primary. Historic tenses (Imperfect, Pluperfect^ and Aorist, or Perfect without ' have ') are followed by Historic. 107. Cambyses — king of Persia, snooeeded Cyrus, the founder of the kingdom, ut spectarent — 'to see,' literally, 'that they might see.' Memphis — a town in Egypt, Equidem — * I, for my part' 108. Magum— one of the priestiy order in Persia. Cambyses had put to death his brother Smerdis. In the absence of Cambyses, one of the Magi, taking advantage of an accidental likeness, pretended to be Smerdis, alleging that he had not been put to death as generally believed, and made himself king. Cambyses died before he could put down the revolt, and Smerdis reigned for some months before he was detected and slain by some conspirators, one of whom, Darius, was made king. Susa, -omm — ^the capital of Persia, the Shushan of Scripture. 109. quove. — Ve, 'or,' is always written after the word to which it is joined, like que, 'and,' and nd, the interrogative, haberem. — Lot, Prim. § 163, 1. ne te doni poemteat — 'lest it should repent thee of thy gift' 110. Babylon-— (Babel) on the Euphrates, the capital of the Chaldean em- pire, was captured by Cyrus in the reign of Belshazzar, as told in Scripture, quae panem conficeret— ' to make bread.' The reason of the verb PART III.] NOTES. Ill in this Adjectival ClatiBe being in the Subjunctive is that quae is equal to * ut ea ;' 'in order that' is implied, see LoJU Prim, § 160, so that it is really equivalent to an Adverbial Clause. 111. panri. — See note on 10. 112. Cyrus took Babylon by dawiTning the Euphrates above the town ; when the river ran low his troops passed under the gates which guarded the river, and so got into the town. 113. mulabos — ^from mulsy to <ii«f.iTignia}i it from muIiBy from mulus ; so deabus. 115. The Babylonians are here called Assyrians, because they had been subject to Assyria in ancient times. Anne — (an-ne) cannot be translated. The Latins used such inter- rogative words as this in addition to the note of interrogation. 116. de ilia copiarum— ' out of that port of your troops, whose,' etc iactuiam — (iacio) 'loss.' This word is often used to signify the lightening of a ship in a storm by throwing part of the cargo over- board. Semiramis — ^the Queen of Ninus, the founder of the great Assyrian Empire. 117. commodo.—Z^. Prim. § 108. futums — ' sure to be.' 118. impetravit — 'he obtained.' Impetrare means to ask for a thing and get it. convenerat — 'it had been settled. ' An impersonal verb. 119. urbs BahyUnL—Lat, Prim, §90. 120. Quot diemm — ' of how many days ; ' tot, ' so many.' quominns is equivalent to ut eo minus, ' in order that by it the less.' Translate quominus oonficiat, 'from finishing.' per singulos — 'through one man at a time ;' per unum would mean that one man took the message the whole way. 121. Spartae — 'at Sparta,' the locative case, originally written Spartai See note on 16. quoties gestasset — ' as often as she carried.' Helena — ^the most beautiful woman in the world, the ii^e of Mene- laus, king of Sparta. She was carried ofiP by Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy, and to recover her the Greeks undertook the famous siege of Troy, which lasted' ten years. 122. The Phoenicians — a maritime people on the coast of Syria, the greatest travellers and traders of the early ages. 123. Bacchus— the god of wine. quum non possint— quum, meaning 'since,' always takes the Sub- junctive ; when it means 'when,' it 'takes the Subjunctive only in the Imperfect and Pluperfect tenses. 124. tanta quanta caaum— -' as great as that of dogs.' 112 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part iii. fiinalem utrinque marem — 'amalefastened-to-a-halteroiieachBide.' data opera — * taking care.' quam nuperrime— ' as lately as possible.' The Indians used to keep the she-camelB for themselves, so that in extremity of danger they might abandon the males with the gold to the ants, and escape themselves. 125. Garamantibus.— £a<. Prim, § 109. possint — ^in snbj. after priusqnam, becanse possibility, not a fact, is meant. 127. intercedere — 'interfere with.' quin capitis damnetur — 'without being condemned to death ;' liter- ally, 'but that he should be condemned of the head.' quin (qui- non) can only be used in a negative sentence. 128. Delphi, -onim — a town in Northern Greece, celebrated for an oracle of Apollo, consultum. — See 25, note. 129. Laconia — ^the country of which Sparta was the capitaL multam — ' a penalty.' in auspidis — ' at the beginning,' from the auspices taken at that time. aere aiieno — ' debt,' literally ' some one else's money.' 131. Athenae, -anim — ^the capital of Attica in Northern Greece. Athenis is the locative case ; see note on 16. quantum — 'as.' quos reppererat amplissimos— the Latins often put the superlative into the relative clause, where in English it would be less correctly joined with the noun. Olympia, in Elis, a country in the Peloponnesus, celebrated for its great Athletic games, which were held every fourth year. 132. Sicyon— ^ town in the N.E. of the Peloponnesus, dignum qui fiat—' worthy to be made.'— 2>a<. Prim. § 160. quibus certarent —2^a<. Prim, § 150. 133. pertentavit — ' made a thorough trial ot* 135. eac legibua — ' according to the laws.' PART IV. SUBSTANTIVAL CLAUSES. A Substantival Clause is one which may take the place of a Substantive, as Subject, Object, or Apposite, being — I. Indirect Statement. Construction.— Accus. with Infin. II. Indirect Command or Request. Construction. — Subjunctive. III. Indirect Question. Construction. — Subjunctive, PARTiv:] NOTES. 113 ■ ■ ^ ^^^^^iiiM I ■!■■ .^ ■i^^T n^^ iw^rifyn-i— MT*^- There are a few exceptions to this rule which will be noticed separately as they occur. It is clear that Substantival Glauses will be most commonly used in report- ing speech (or thoughts) of others. In this case all AdverbioU or AcfjectivcU Clattaes depending on the Substantival must be Subjunctive. 136. Certior factus sum — ' I have been informed,' literally, * X have been made more certain.* ntantur— in Subj., because explaining esse gentea. 137. Giyphas — ^acc. of Gryps, 'griffins,' fabulous monsters, like the dragon slain by St. Greorge. 138. Barca— a town in N. Africa. ez adverso— ' in the opposite direction.' 139. se soluturos — 'to pay.' Verbs of hoping and promising take the Future Infinitive, which is translated like the Present. 140. Icto foedere — 'A truce being agreed on,' lit. 'struck.' iureiurando — ^abL of iusiurandum, of which both parts are declined. Stare with abL — ' to stand by.' tam diu — quam dia — ' so long — ^as.' 141. quidnam esset— indirect question. 142. Carthaginienses — ^the inhabitants of Carthage (Carthago), a town in N. Africa. Libya — ^a country in N. Africa. Herculeas columnas — ' the pillars of Hercules.' Gibraltar (Calpe), and Abyla, a mountain in Africa just opposite, were so called from the fable that they were originally one mountain, torn in two by Hercules (Herakles), the national hero of Greece. sin minus — ' but if not,' 143. Nomadas— from Nomas, a Greek word, meaning 'roaming about for pasture,' ' the Bedouins.' ne unquam — more elegant than ' ut nunquanw' 144. Darius.— ^ee 108, note. Ister^'the Danube.' adem committere — ' to join line of battle.' neque ullus — ^more elegant than ' et nullus.* To give earth and water was a sign of complete submission. 145. in malam crucem proinde abiret— ' let him go and be hanged.' abiret — ^indirect form of the imperative. 146. similis equo— «.«. in swiftness. Magod. — See 108, note. 147. de improviso — 'unexpectedly.* 149. solverent— See 145, note. se facturos.— See 139, note. 151. Ioiiiain.--See 91, note. H 114 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part iv. Milesius — ' of Miletus,' the principal city of the loniaa Greeks in Asia Minor. ad tell iactum — ' as far as a javelin*s throw.' 153. rationem secum iniens — 'taJdng account.' in regiam domum — Howards the royal family.' properantius quam sapientius — 'more hastily than (more) wisely.' 154 MitTobatl— Lot. Prim. § 109. subactu. — See 106, note. 155. nescio quid — 'something or other.' Anacreontem Teium — ' Anacreon of Teos.' Anacreon was a poet who sang the praises of love and wine. Teos, an island in the Aegean Sea. 156. Magnesia — a city of Lydia in Asia Minor, quo^ut eo. — Lot, Prim. § 150. fore ut potiretur=se potiturum esse — 'that he would get possession of.' quemcunque fidelissimum babes — 'the most faithful you have;* the adjective is put into the adjectival clause, instead of going with its noun as in English, otherwise it would mean, ' the very faithful citizen whomsoever you have.' 167. inparato — 'ready.' 158. actuarta navis (ago) — ' a man of war,' as opposed to oneraria (onus) — ' a- merchantman. ' lit rata baec fierent-^' that these things might be so.' 159. Syracusae, -arum — a town in Sicily, now Syracuse. ne unus quidem — ' not even one. ' The emphatic word is put between ne and quidem always, qui comparetur — 'to be compared.' — LcU. Prim. § 150. 160. narratu — ^the supine in u, 'to be told,' used as an ablative depending on indigno. loco—' as ;' lit. in place of. 161. inter venandum — 'while hunting,' venandum the gerund used as an accusative, ut pes distorqueretur — a substantival clause acting as subject to accidit, instead of the accusative and infinitive. 162. indutus laceros pannes — 'clothed in torn rags.' 163. ne nulla spes reliqua foret — a substantival clause depending on veritus. 164. cui nomen erat Sdtoni.— Xa^. Prim, § 109. 166. ne imprudentes in aquam decidant— the object to veriti. brevi interposita mora — ' after a short delay.' 167. eum pulcre dedpiens — 'getting round him finely.' praecTdens — ' cutting short.' qui cupias — an adjectival clause really equal to an adverbial, since qui=quumtu, 'since you.' — Lot. Prim, § 150. PART IV.] NOTES. IIS 1G9. exsulatum^-'to go into exile.' The supine used as an accusative after the verb of motion, abirent. 170. ex quo— * ever since.' eminentiorem quemque dvem — 'all the distinguished citizens.' Vellet is in the subjunctive where you would expect the indicative, because quae=tidia ut — * whatever he wished.* — La^, Prim. § 150. 171. Eretria — a town in the island of Euboea, close to Greece, auxilio — the dative of the complement, *for a help.' quominus possent — 'from being able.' Quominus^ut eo minus, depending on impedimento. 172. dare poenas — 'to suffer punishment.' 173. Cyprus — ^a large island in the Levant Sea. 174. quae quum ita essent — ' This being the state of affairs.' 175. Car — a Carian, an inhabitant of Oaria, a country in Asia Minor, utnim — an, 'whether, or,* a double question. quod di prohibeant — ' the gods forbid,' conjunctive expressing a wish, artes — 'tricks.' 176. convenerat — 'it had been settled.' 178. Amathunta — a Greek form of the accusative from Amathus, untis. auferrent — See 145, note. melius actum iri — 'things would go better,' Ut, 'that it would be done better.' 179. ne interficeretur. — See 163, note. Susis. — See 108, note. Byzantium — ^now Constantinople. qui profiterentur — 'whoever.' — LaL Prim. § 150. conditum — ' pickled, ' from condio. 180. ad Miletum — ' near Miletus ;' cU Miletus would be Mileti, the locative* placuit — * it was resolved. ' ne quis — 'that no,' literally, 'lest any.' 181. habitae — 'delivered.' in novaculae ade — ' on the edge of a razor, ' that is to say, ' in danger. ' 182. binas — ' two at a time.' ponte — 'the deck,' so in French, * pont.' in commune contulit — 'contributed to the common stock.' quanto praestat — 'How much better.' agite — * come.' 183. sublatis veUs — ' having set sail.' actum esse de — ' that it was all up with. ' vela fecit — ' set saiL' Tyrrhenis — 'Etruscans,' the people of Etmria, a country in Italy. 184. cuiusque g^eneris — 'of every kind.' 185. Argivi — ^the people of Argos, a town in the Peloponnesus, attinere ad — ' to have to do with.' fies coena — 'thou shalt become a feast.' ii6 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part i v. 186. docnisset — 'had put on the stage.' fedsset is in the sabjnnctive where yon would expect the indicative, because qnod is equivalent to 'because they said that.' 187. poenam snmere — 'to take vengeance on.' Thasos — an island in the A^ean Sea. Heflespontiis — now the Dardanelles, the strait at the entrance of the Sea of Marmora* Macedonia— now part of Turkey. Athos — a rocky promontory to the north of Greece, amplins viginti miUia — ^understand quam, 'than,' after 'amplins.' Thraces — a tribe inhabiting part of what is now Turkey. 188. ne tum qnidem. — See 159, note. accessenmt — 'were added.' eqois tnuisvehendis — ' for carrying across the horses.' paiandas curaverat — 'had got ready.' 189. Icarium mare — ^the same as the Aegean. Naxos — an island in the A^ean. 190. Delos, Tenos — ^islands in the Aegean. 193. curae fhit — 'was (for) a care,' the dative ot the complement. — LaL Prim, § 108. homines — 'the inhabitants,' females as weU as males. 194. Mara t hon — a plain about 20 miles from Athens, about 6 miles long, and from 1 to 3 broad, bounded by a marsh at each end. Hippias had been expelled from Athens, B^a 510, and was at the present date, blg. 490, a very old man. apud Dariom — ' at the court of Darius.' 195. Pan — the god of flocks and shepherds. He was dreaded by travellers, to whom he was suddenly said to appear. Hence the term, ' Panic fear,' or 'panic' obvium factus est — ' met.' 8ui — ' of him (self).' meritums sit — 'was likely to deserve.' 196b postridie ejns did — 'on the day after that day,' 'next day.' sab iug^nm — 'under the yoke,' as a sign of submission. 197. ut vehementius et sterautaret et tnssiret— the subject of aocidit. labarent — 'were loose.' 198. Plataeenses— the inhabitants of Plataea, a town in Boeotia^ in Northern Greece, qui suffragium ferret— 'to vote.' — LaL Prhn. § 150. 199. in te situm est — 'it rests with you.' memoriam tni— ' a memorial of thysell ' See 94, note. sin his sufifragatus fueris— ' but if you shall have voted for these.' 201. manus conserere — ' to join battle.' memoratn.— See 160, note. Medicam vestem — 'the uniform of the Modes.' Modes are here PART IV.] NOTES. 117 equivalent to Persians. The Medes were a people in Asia who were now subject to the Persians. 204. Sunium— a promontory of Attica. quantum pedibus valuere — 'as fast as they could.' 205. Paros — an island in the Aegean, operam dare—' to do one's best.' 206. Timo — gen. TimOs, ace. Timo, a Greek word. Dearum Inferarum — 'the goddesses of the infernal regions.' muras — a wall ; moenia, town walls ; paries, a partition wall in a house. Ceres — ^the goddess of the earth, and the patroness of agriculture. 207. qui consulerent — 'to consult.' The Subjunctive of purpose: qtd=s ut a — Lot* Prim. § 160. Delphi, -orum — a town in Northern Greece, famous for an oracle of Apollo. Pythia — ^the priestess of Apollo. ut vita male fung^eretur Miltiades — the subject to esset. dttcem — ^in apposition to hanc. 208. capitis reum — 'as a criminal on a capital charge.' ut qui — ' on the ground that he. ' Ut qui always takes subjunctive. dicere caussam — ' to plead a cause.' 209. Argi, -orum — ^the capital of Argolis, in the Peloponnesus. Stymphalio lacu — a lake in Arcadia, in the centre of Peloponnesus* Arg^olis— the territory of Argos. 210. ne dolo caperentur— the object to verebantur. praevertet — * shall rout.* 211. Arg^s— the national hero of the country. 212. singles — 'one at a time.' pendendae— ' to be paid.' 213. hilotae — ^the serfs in Laconia. They were the descendants of the aborigines, who had been conquered by the Spartans who invaded Laconia in early times, and became the ruling race. 214. inimicus — ^a personal enemy, as opposed to hostis, a public foe* sacris factis — ' having offered a sacrifice.' capturum fuisse — ' would have taken.' 216. merum bibere — 'to drink wine unmingled with water,' which was thought a most depraved habit. 218. quo pacto — 'how,* 'by what means.* 219. Hellespontum, Athon. — See 187, note, sui. — See 94, note.^ 220. facienda curat— 'gets done.' iung^endis pontibus. — Lot. Prim, § 143. alii alio — 'some in one place, some in another,' UU 'others to another place.' 223. Pontus— the Black Sea. ii8 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part iv. 224. in eo erat ut — * was on the point of.' Magis. — See 108, note. 225. mediiis — 'across the middle.' 226. Abydi — the locative. — See 16, note. de industria — 'on purpose.' ceitaminis navalis spectandL— JSo^. Prim. § 143. 227. ne quis — 'that no,' lit, 'lest any.' qui cog^eret — Subjunctive of consequence, qvi^ztalis ut, 'of such a kind as to.' — La$. Prim. § 160. 229. rationem nullam habuit — 'took no notice.' in hunc modum — 'as follows.' 230. Doriscus — a town in Thrace, or Turkey. 232. confisi — ' trusting,' a deponent participle from oonfido. 233. Salamis — an island off the south-west coast of Attica. 234. qua ratione— 'how.' Thermopylae — (the Hot Gates, so called from its hot springs) ; a pass leading from the state of Thessaly to that of Locris in N. Greece. The pass was very narrow ; on one side was a lofty mountain (Mount Oeta), on the other a deep morass and the sea. Artemisium — a tract of country on the north coast of Euboea. ab altero latere — ' on one side.' alter, ' one of two.' 236. Troezen— ^a city in Argolis, in the Peloponnesus. Aegina — ^an island in the Saronic gulf, near Attica. The Aeginetan navy was the second in Greece, that of the Athenians being the most powerful metum quemdam incussit barbaris — ' inspired the barbarians with a certain amount of fear. ' The Greeks called all foreign nations barbarians, praestitit se — ' showed himself.' veluti in frusta — ' into ribbons, so to speak.' 237. non minus quadringentas — ^understand quam after minus, otherwise quadringentas would have to be the ablative after the comparative minus. 238. qui exploraret — See 207, note. 239. Demaratus had been king of Sparta eleven years before, but having been deposed, had taken refuge with Xerxes, quominus intremus. — See 171, note, qui audeat = to/is tit. — Lai, Prim. § 150. 240. homines — ^viros, ' human beings ' and ' men.' Notice the distinction. expUcari — ' deploy,' a military term, meaning to open out, 242. sub noctem — 'at nightfall.' quae drcumvenirent. — See 207, note. 243. minime promptos — 'by no means resolute.' 244. ratio— 'account.' quibus gladii supererant — ' those who had swords left. ' PART IV.] NOTES. 1T9

245. Trachis — a town in Thessaly. 246. ad Artemisiiitn — 'ofif Artemisimn.' See 180, note, missunis esset—* would be likely to send.* 248. andpiti Marte — * with success uncertain/ UL 'with Mars uncertain.' Mars was the god of war. 249. sublatis ancoris — ' having weighed anchor.' ut committerentur— the subject of accidit. 250. inter se cohortati — ' exhorting each other.' visum est — * it seemed good,' * they resolved.' 251. sibi ipsis consuluenmt — * consulted for their own safety.' 252. nuntiatum. — See 26, note. • Parnassus — a mountain overhanging the town of Delphi 253. locaret—' let him place.' condita — ^from condio, ' flavoured.' 255. altero die ab — 'on the day after.' longitudinem. — Lot, Prim. § 102, 2. 256. Isthmum— the isthmus of Corintii between N. Greece and the Pelo- ponnesus. 257. regis partibus — ' the side of the King.' qui nuntiarem. — See 207, note. 258. in puppim remigarent—' backed water,' Ut, 'rowed towards the stem.' longius evectus — ' carried out too far to sea.' miseri — ' cowards. ' 259. ne quis • • . caperet, the object of veritus. quae cnstodirent — See 207, note. anno insequenti — ^b.c. 479. 260. Caria — a district in the south-west comer of Asia Minor, quod spectat ad — ' as regards.' 261. ponte.--^ 182, note. 262. moenia urbi ctrcumdare— 'to surround the city with a wall,' lU, ' to give-round a wall to the city.' invitis— ' against the will of. ' 263. certiorem faceret — See 136, note. 265. ut • . . videretur— the subject to accidit. 'It happened that,' etc. This constmction is here used instead of the accusative and infinitive, opus est IvLcenuL—Lat. Prim, § 119, a. 266. ut certior fieret — 'to be informed,' Ut» 'in order that he might be- come more certain.' sdendi. — Lai, Prim. § 141, 2. gratias ageret — ' gave thanks.' inter legendas literas — 'while reading a letter.' This construction of the gerundive participle is elegantly used instead of the gerund ; ' inter legendum literas.' — Lot, Prim. § 143. I20 EASY LATIN STORIES. [part iv. bono eise aaimo— 'to be of good oonnge.' aiif erret — ^Uie indirect form of the imperative. 267. nzorem dacere — 'to many a wife.' 268. Syria— a coimtry of Western A£da» between Ana Minor and "EgypL cni obviam itnms erat — 'which he was going to meet' 269. consnltniii— the sapine. Lot Prim, % 141, 5. 270L Cambyses — sncoeeded Gyms^ the founder of the Pendan empire, &a 529. mrnnis snnm ptaestare—'do its duty.' 271. AlflT<i«^«w the Greats king of Macedonia (now part of Tnrkey), overthrew the Persian empire^ B.a 333* ne oraveris. — See 21, note. 272. Scythas.— See 6, note, peteres — 'yon would grasp.' quin fiangi possit — 'as not to be aUe to be broken f qnin, here=: qnod non, can only be nsed in a negative sentence. qnid ttbi nobiscum est— 'what have you to do with nsT' quo . . • eo^'themore . . . the more.' 273w poenituit— 2>at. Prwu § 134. neque mnltum abfuit quin interficeret — 'and was not far from killing,' UL 'bat that he should kill' 274. ez mandato— ' according to the command.' 276. futums esset — ' was likely to be.' nubere — 'to many,' UL 'to take the bridal veiL' 276. fore ut—' that it would be that' 277. Thebes — (Thebae), a town of Boeotia, a country in Northern Greece, baud multum abesse quin moreretur — 'that he was not far from djring,' Ut. * but that he should die.' 278. Megara — a town on the isthmus of Corinth. 279. pro signo— 'foracrest' 281. sennone callebant— ' were skiUed in the language.' 282. non cupivisset — ' he would not have desired.' arcnbns. — Words of two syllables of the fourth dedension ending in -cus take -ubus instead of -ibua in the dative and ablative plural. 28a fdaee.'^Lat. Prim. § 124. 284. qnod dixisset— i^a<. Prim. § ISa 285. nltima terranim— ' most remote regions.' dedmum quemque— ' every tenth man,' liL ' each tenth man.'

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